The Family Self-Sufficiency (FSS) program was established by Section 554 of the Cranston-Gonzalez National Affordable Housing Act of 1990 to help residents of public housing and participants in the Housing Choice Voucher program become self-sufficient through education, training, case management, and other supportive services. This study finds that the financial benefits are substantial for participants who remain in and graduate from the FSS program. The study also highlights certain personal and program characteristics that tend to make families more successful in FSS. (For example, those with higher levels of education at enrollment did better.) These findings suggest approaches that program administrators can take to target FSS services more effectively.