Living in a community with lower socioeconomic status is associated with higher mortality. However, few studies have examined associations between community socioeconomic characteristics and mortality among the First Nations population. The Community Well-Being Index (CWB), a measure of the social and economic well-being of communities, consists of income, education, labour force participation, and housing components. A dichotomous variable was used to indicate residence in a community with a CWB score above or below the average for First Nations communities. Age standardized mortality rates (ASMRs) were calculated for First Nations cohort members in communities with CWB scores above and below the First Nations average.